Disorders of metabolism principally involve an imbalance in nucleic acids, proteins, lipids, or carbohydrates. They are usually associated with either a deficiency or excess resulting in an imbalance in a particular metabolic pathway.
All metabolic disorders have a genetic background, and some of them are expressed as specific genetic diseases. Other factors affecting metabolism include internal control mechanisms that are superimposed on the genetic background.
It is a disorder of energy utilization and storage, diagnosed by a co-occurrence of three out of five of the following medical conditions: abdominal (central) obesity, elevated blood pressure, elevated fasting plasma glucose, high serum triglycerides, and low high-density cholesterol (HDL) levels.
Metabolic disorder increases the risk of developing cardiovascular disease, particularly heart failure, and diabetes.
One of the most important mechanisms is the hormonal control system, which consists of the endocrine, paracrine, and autocrine systems. The second control system that has a significant effect on metabolism is the neural control system.
The third control system is the immune control system, which relates to both the endocrine and neural systems.
Genetic background, environmental factors, and the three major control mechanisms, in conjunction with age and sex, bring about profound changes in metabolism, which ultimately result in structural and functional alterations.